★ Literature


The journal is a publication, usually a periodical publication in which printed or electronically published. Magazines, generally published on a regular basis and contain a variety of materials. They are generally financed by advertising, by purchase price, payment, subscription, or a combination of the three.


The book is a medium for recording information in the form of writing or images, usually consist of many pages linked together and protected by a cover. The technical term for this physical location code. In the history of manual physical support for the extended written works or records, the code replaces its predecessor, the scroll. A single leaf in the manuscript is a leaf, and each side of the sheet pages. As an intellectual object, the book is preobrazovatelya in the composition of such great length that it requires a significant investment of time to compose and is still significant, ...


The novel is relatively long work of narrative fiction, usually written in the form of prose, which, as a rule, is published in book form. The current English word for a long work of prose comes from the Italian Novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", from the Latin Novella, a noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of NOVUS, meaning "new". Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel in which "the events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human history and modern state of society", and romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in ...


The story or mezzobula is a work of narrative prose, more story, but less novel. Publishers and literary societies awards usually describe the novels number of words in the range of 15.000 and 40.000 words, although definitions vary. The English word "Novella" derives from the Italian Novella, feminine of Novello which means "new". Novella is a common literary genre in several European languages.

History of literature

History of literature-the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader / listener / observer, as well as the development of literary techniques used in the communication of these parts. Not all the works represent the literature. Some recorded materials, such as compilations of data are not considered in the literature, and in this article only applies to the evolution of the works defined above.


Newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information on current events and often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspaper can cover a wide range of fields such as politics, business, sports and art, and often include materials such as columns, views, forecasts, comments local services, obituaries, notices of births, crosswords, cartoons, comics, and columns. Most Newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, sales, press, and advertising revenue. In journalistic organizations that publish Newspapers are t ...

Literary criticism

Literary criticism is the study, evaluation and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory which is the philosophical discussion about the purpose of literature and methods. Although these two activities are closely related, literary critics are not always, and not always theorists. Whether or not literary criticism should be regarded as a separate field of study from literary theory, or conversely from book deals, is the subject of some controversy. For example, the Johns Hopkins guide on literary theory and criticism draws no distinctio ...

Australian literature

Australian literature is the written or literary work produced in the area or the people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding colonies. In the early period of Western history, Australia was a collection of British colonies, so it is recognized as literary tradition begins with and is linked to the broader tradition of English literature. However, the narrative art of Australian authors since 1788, introduced the character of a new continent into literature - exploring such topics as the origin, camaraderie, egalitarianism, democracy, national identity, migration, Australia, t ...

Gothic fiction

Gothic fiction, which is largely known for the genre of Gothic horror, is a genre or kind of literature and cinema that blends the science fiction and horror, death, and sometimes romance. Its origin is attributed to English author Horace Walpole with his novel the Castle of Otranto 1764, with the subtitle "a Gothic story". Gothic fiction usually focus on emotions and view of terror, serving as a continuation of the romantic literary movement that is relatively new at the time that the Walpoles novel was published. The most common of these "pleasures" among the Gothic readers was sublime - ...

Creative nonfiction

Creative nonfiction is a genre of writing, literary styles and techniques to create factually accurate narratives. Creative documentary contrasts with other literature such as scientific or technical writing or journalism, which is also rooted in accurate fact, but is not written to entertain based on prose style.

Swedish literature

Swedish literature refers to literature written in the Swedish language or by writers from Sweden. The first literary text from Sweden rune stone, rock, carved in the Viking era around 800 BC. With the conversion of the land to Christianity around 1100 ad, Sweden entered the middle Ages, during which monastic writers prefer to use the Latin alphabet. Consequently, there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was written in the 16th century, standardization largely due to the complete translation of the Bible in ...

Japanese literature

Early works of Japanese literature were heavily influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature, often written in classical Chinese. Indian literature also had an impact through the separation of Buddhism in Japan. Eventually, Japanese literature developed into a separate style, although the influence of Chinese literature and classical Chinese remained until the end of the Edo period. Since Japan reopened its ports to Western trading and diplomacy in the 19th century, Western and Eastern literature have strongly affected each other and continue to do so.

Swiss literature

Since there is no dominant national language, the four main languages: French, Italian, German and Romansch form the four branches which make up a literature of Switzerland. The original Swiss Confederation, from its Foundation in 1291 till 1798, was only a few French-speaking districts in the Canton of Fribourg, and so the German language dominated. During this period the Swiss vernacular literature in the German language, although in the 18th century French became the fashionable in Bern and in other countries. At that time, Geneva and Lausanne have not been to Switzerland: Geneva was an ...

German literature

German literature comprises those literary texts written in German. This includes literature written in Germany, Austria, the German part of Switzerland and Belgium, Liechtenstein, South Tyrol in Italy and to a lesser extent the construction of the German Diaspora. German literature of new time, mostly in standard German, but there are some currents of literature influenced to a greater or lesser degree adverbs. Medieval German literature-literature written in Germany, stretching from the Carolingian dynasty, various dates were given for the end of the German literature of the middle Ages, ...

Czech literature

Czech literature is the literature written in the Czech language. The earliest literary works written in the Czech Republic belong to the 14th century. Modern literature can be divided into the periods of national awakening of the 19th century, the Avant-garde of the interwar period, years under communism and the Prague spring, and the literature on post-Communist Czech Republic. In another sense, the term "Czech literature" can refer to "the literature written by Czechs," regardless of the language, including works in old Church Slavonic, medieval Latin or German.

Literary modernism

Literary modernism, or modernist literature, has its origins in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, both in poetry and prose. Modernists experimented with literary form and expression, as evidenced by Ezra pound Maxim to "make new". This literary movement was caused by a conscious desire to overturn traditional modes of representation and Express the new feelings of his time. The horrors of the First world war the prevailing assumptions about society reassessed.


★ Literature

Literature the most General sense, is any body of written work. More restrictive, literature refers to written form, is considered an art form or some other written form is considered artistic or intellectual value, often deploy language in ways that differ from ordinary usage.

Its Latin root, Literatura / litteratura derived from Littera: letter or letters used to refer to all written reports. The concept has changed meaning over time to include texts that are spoken or sung oral literature and oral verbal art. The development of printing technology has allowed ever-growing distribution and dissemination of written work, culminating in the electronic literature.

The literature is classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, and whether it is poetry or prose. It may also be different in accordance with the basic forms such as novel, story, or drama, and often categorised according to historical periods or their adherence to certain aesthetic features or expectations of a genre.


1. Definition. (Определение)

Definitions of literature have varied over time: it is "culturally relative definition". In Western Europe until the 18th century, literature to designate all the books and letters. Appeared during the romantic period in which it began to demarcate "imaginative" writing the narrower sense of the term. Modern disputes about what is literature can be seen as a return to the old, more comprehensive concepts, cultural studies, for example, takes as its subject of analysis of all popular genres of minorities, in addition to canonical works.

Definition of value judgment literature believes that it is only those writings which are of high quality and the difference is included in the so-called fine literature tradition to write. This kind of definition used in the encyclopædia Britannica eleventh edition 1910-11 classification of literature as "the best expression of the best thoughts in written form". Problematic in this view is that there is no objective definition of what constitutes "literature": anything can be literature, and anything that is considered literature, has the potential to be excluded since value judgements can change over time.

The formalist definition is that "literature" brings to the fore a poetic impact, it is "literary" or "poetic" of literature that distinguishes it from ordinary speech or other kinds of records, for example, journalism. Jim Meyer considers this a useful property if you are explanation to use this term to mean published material in a particular area, e.g. "scientific literature", as such letters should use language in accordance with defined standards. The problem with the formalist definition is that in order to say that literature differs from the ordinary use of language, those goals must first be identified, it is difficult because "ordinary language" is an unstable category, differing according to social categories and history.

Etymologically, the term derives from Latin Literatura / litteratura "learning, a writing, grammar," originally "letter is formed with the letter" s "letter" / the letter "letter". Despite this, the term was also applied to the sound texts.


1.1. Definition. Genres. (Жанры)

A literary genre is a way of classifying the literature. French term for "literary kind" or "class". However, such classes are subject to change, and has been used in different ways in different periods and traditions.


2. History. (История)

History of literature is closely linked with the development of civilization. When defined exclusively as written work, ancient Egyptian literature along with Sumerian literature are considered the oldest in the worlds literature. The major genres of the literature of Ancient Egypt didactic texts, hymns and prayers, and tales were almost entirely written in verse, although the use of poetic devices is clearly recognisable, the prosody of the verse is unknown. Most Sumerian literature is, apparently, the poetry, as it is written in the left edge of the string, and can contain a line such organizations as the couplet or the quatrain,

Different historical periods are reflected in literature. National and tribal sagas, stories about the origin of the world and of customs and myths which sometimes carry moral or spiritual messages predominate in the pre urban eras. In the epic by Homer, Dating from the early to mid iron age, and the great Indian epics of a slightly later period have more evidence of deliberate literary authorship, surviving like the old myths in the oral tradition for a long period before recording.

Literature in all its manifestations can be regarded as written evidence, whether by itself literature to be factual or fictional, it is still quite possible to decipher facts through actions, symbols and words or the authors style of writing and the intentions behind the words. The plot is not for entertainment purposes only, in it lies information about Economics, psychology, science, religion, politics, culture and social depth. Studying and analyzing literature becomes very important in terms of learning about human history. Literature gives an idea about how society has evolved and about social norms within each period throughout history. For example, postmodern authors argue that history and fiction both constitute systems of signification by which we learn the past. It is argued that both of these "discourses, human design, signifying systems, and both derive their major claim to truth from that identity". Literature provides views on life, which is crucial in getting the truth and understanding of human life throughout history and its periods. In particular, it explores the possibility of life in terms of a certain value under certain social and historical circumstances.

Literature helps us to understand references made in more modern literature because authors often refer to mythology and other old religious texts describing ancient civilizations such as the Greeks and Egyptians. Not only literature written in each of the aforementioned topics themselves, and how they have evolved throughout history in the book of the history of Economics or a book about evolution and science, for example, but you can also learn about these things in artwork. Authors often include historical moments in their works, as when Lord Byron talks about the Spanish and French in "Childe Harolds pilgrimage: a song I" and expresses his opinions through his character Childe Harold. Through literature we can discover new information about history. It is easy to see how all the Sciences have their roots in the literature. Information became easier to pass on from generation to generation, when we started to record it. In the end, everything was written down from things like home remedies and cure the disease, or how to build shelter to traditions and religious practices. There people had the opportunity to study literature, develop ideas, broaden our knowledge and academic fields such as medicine or transactions can be started. In much the same way as the literature that we study today continue to be updated as we continue to evolve and learn more and more.

As a more urban culture developed, academies provided a means of transmitting speculative and philosophical literature in ancient civilizations, the prevalence of literature in Ancient China Ancient India Persia and Ancient Greece and Rome. Many works of earlier periods even in narrative form had a covert moral and didactic purpose, for example, the Sanskrit Panchatantra or the Metamorphoses of Ovid. Drama and satire also developed as urban culture for a larger audience and later readers of Literary production. Lyrical poetry, unlike epic poetry is often the speciality of courts and aristocratic circles, especially in East Asia where songs were collected by the Chinese aristocracy as poems, the most notable being the Shijing or Book of songs. Over a long period, the poetry of preliterate folk ballads and songs vzaimoposhchi each other and eventually influenced poetry in the literary environment.

In Ancient China, early literature was primarily focused on philosophy, historiography, military science, agriculture, and poetry. China, the origin of the modern production of paper and woodblock printing produced the worlds first print cultures. Much of Chinese literature originates with the Hundred schools of thought period that occurred during the Eastern Zhou dynasty 769-269 BC. The most important of these are the classics of Confucianism, of Daoism, of Mohism, of legalism, as well as the construction of military science, for example, Sun Tzu the art of war and the history of China, for example, SIMA Qians records of the Grand historian. Ancient Chinese literature had a heavy emphasis on historiography with often very detailed court records. An exemplary piece of narrative history of Ancient China was the Zuo Zhuan which was compiled no later than 389 BCE, and attributed to the blind 5th century BCE historian Zuo Qiuming.

In Ancient India, literature originated from stories that were originally orally transmitted. Early genres included drama, fables, sutras and epic poetry. Sanskrit literature begins with the Vedas, built in 1500-1000 BCE, and continues with the Sanskrit epics of iron age in India. The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. In the Vedic Samhitas collections about 1500-1000 BCE, and the "Circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the compilation of the Samhitas, date to C. 1000-500 BCE, resulting In a Vedic period, spanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st Millennium BCE, or late bronze age and iron age. The period between approximately the 6th to 1st centuries BC saw the composition and redaction of the two most influential Indian epics "Mahabharata" and "Ramayana", with subsequent revisions progresses until the 4th century ad. Other major literary work Ramcharitmanas & Krishnacharitmanas.

In Ancient Greece, the epics of Homer who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey and Hesiod who wrote works and days and Theogony, are some of the earliest and most influential in ancient Greek literature. Classical Greek genres included philosophy, poetry, historiography, comedies and dramas. Plato and Aristotle, author of philosophical texts that are the Foundation of Western philosophy Sappho and Pindar were influential lyrical, and Herodotus and Thucydides were early Greek historians. Although drama was popular in Ancient Greece, of the hundreds of tragedies written and performed during the classical age, only a limited number of works by three authors still exist: Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. The plays of Aristophanes provide the only real examples of a genre of comic drama known as old Comedy, the earliest form of Greek Comedy, is actually used to define the genre.

Roman history and biographies, it is expected the extensive mediaeval literature of lives of saints and miraculous Chronicles but the most characteristic form of the middle Ages was the romance, adventure, and sometimes magical narrative with strong popular. Controversial, religious, political and instructional literature proliferated during the Renaissance in the invention of printing while the mediaeval romance developed into more character and psychological form of narrative, Novel, of which early and important examples are the Chinese monkey and the German Faust books.

In the age of reason philosophical tracts and speculations on history and human nature integrated literature with social and political events. The inevitable reaction was the explosion of romanticism in the late 18th century, which was returned by the imagination and fantastical bias of old romances and folk literature and asserted the primacy of individual experience and emotion. But in the 19th century went on, European fiction evolved towards realism and naturalism, with meticulous documentation of real life and social trends. A significant part of products manufactured naturalism was implicitly polemical, and influenced social and political change, but the fiction and drama of the 20th century returned to the subjective, emphasising unconscious motivations and social and environmental human exposure. Writers such as Proust, Eliot, Joyce, Kafka and Pirandello exemplify the trend of documenting internal rather than external reality.

Genre fiction also showed it could question reality in the 20th century forms, in spite of its fixed formulas, through the queries of the skeptical detective and the alternative realities of science fiction. The separation of "mainstream" and "genre" forms, including journalism continues to blur during the period up to our times. William Burroughs, in his early works, and hunter S. Thompson expanded documentary reporting into strong subjective statements after the Second World War, and postmodern critics dismissive of the idea of objective realism in General.


3. Psychology and literature. (Психология и литература)

Theorists suggest that literature allows readers to access intimate emotional aspects of a persons character that would not be obvious otherwise. That literature helps the psychological development and understanding of the reader, allowing someone to access emotional States from which they distanciruemsa. D. Mitchell, for example, explains how one author used young adult literature to describe the state of "wonder" she had experienced in childhood. Some researchers focused on the importance of literature In persons psychological development. For example, for language learning uses literature because it contains or provides culture, which is one of the elements that are considered important in language learning. This is demonstrated by studies that have shown how the presence of cultural values and culturally familiar passages of literary texts plays an important influence on the performance of minority students in English reading. Psychologists also use literature as a tool or a therapeutic tool for people to help them better understand the challenges and problems - for example in the integration of subliminal messages in literary texts or the rewriting of traditional stories, to help readers solve their problems or to mold them into a contemporary social message.

Hogan also explains that the time and emotions that a person devotes to understanding the situation of the characters makes literature "environmental works in the study of emotions." Thus, literature can unite a large community by provoking universal emotions, and allows the user to access cultural aspects that they had not been exposed to, and which give rise to new emotional experiences. Theorists claim that the authors of literary techniques in which psychological emotions that they are trying to describe.

Some psychologists consider literature as a valid research tool because it allows them to discover new psychological ideas. Psychological theories about literature, such as the hierarchy of needs Maslows they become generally accepted.

The psychologist Maslows "the third theory of the psychology of strength" helps literary analysts to critically understand how characters reflect the culture and history they belong to. It also allows them to understand the authors intention and psychology. This theory assumes that people have in them my true self and that the implementation is a reason for life. He also suggests that neurological development hinders actualizing this and that man is alienated from his true self. Maslow argues that literature explores this struggle for self-realization. Paris in his "third force psychology and the study of literature" argues that "D. H. Lawrence, the primordial unconscious is a metaphor for the real self". Literature, it is here suggested, therefore, is a tool that allows readers to develop and apply critical thinking to the nature of emotions.

Symbols and images can contribute to the formation of the psychological and aesthetic reactions to texts.


4. Poetry. (Поэзия)

Poetry is a form of literary art which uses the aesthetic qualities of language, including music and rhythm to evoke meanings beyond prose paraphrase. Traditionally distinguished poetry from prose in verse, prose is cast in sentences, poetry in lines, the syntax of prose, defines the meaning and poetry is passing through the meter or the visual aspects of the poem. This difference is enhanced by various hybrid forms such as the prose poem and prosimetrum, and generally the fact that prose possesses rhythm. Abram Lipsky refers to it as "an open secret" that "prose is not distinguished from poetry by lack of rhythm".

Until the 19th century, poetry is often understood to be something set in metrical lines, respectively, in 1658 a definition of poetry is "any object, consisting of rhythm or poetry." Perhaps as a result of the influence of his Poetics of Aristotle, "poetry" until the 19th century was usually less a technical assignment for verse than a normative category of fictive or oratory. As a form it may pre-date literacy, with the earliest works, which is compiled for and support the oral tradition, therefore, it is the earliest example of literature.


5. Prose. (Проза)

Prose is a form of language that possesses ordinary syntax and natural speech rather than a regular m, in connection with which, together with its presentation in sentences rather than Lines, it differs from most poems. However, trends in modern literature, including free verse and prose poetry, as a rule, blur distinctions, and American poet T. S. Eliot remarked that: "the distinction between verse and prose is clear, the distinction between poetry and prose is incomprehensible."

On the historical development of prose, Richard Graff notes that "the identity seems destined to be disputed into perpetuity". It has been suggested that the size restriction of the form produces various stylistic results, some which are shared with the novel or short story, and other unique shapes.


5.1. Prose. The story. (История)

The dilemma in defining the "short story" as a literary form is how, and whether, to distinguish it from the short story, therefore, he also has a contested origin, variably suggested as the earliest short stories, for example, in the Bible, in the beginning of the story writers such as Edgar Allan PoE or the clearly modern short story writers such as Anton Chekhov. In addition to various sizes, various theorists have suggested that the story has a characteristic subject matter or structure; these discussions often position the form in some relation to the novel.


5.2. Prose. Essay. (Эссе)

The essay consists of a discussion of the authors personal point of view, the example of the works of Michel de Montaigne or Charles lamb. Genres related to the essay may include the memoir and letters.


5.3. Prose. Science. (Наука)

As advances and specialization have made new scientific research inaccessible to most audiences, the "literary" nature of science writing has become less pronounced, over the last two centuries. Now, science appears mostly in journals. The scientific works of Aristotle, Copernicus, and Newton still exhibit great value, but since the science in them has largely become outdated, they no longer serve for scientific instruction. However, they remain too technical to sit in most programs of literary studies. Beyond the "History of science" programmes, students rarely read such works.


5.4. Prose. Philosophy. (Философия)

Philosophy becomes an increasingly academic discipline. More of its practitioners lament this situation from happening to science, nonetheless most new philosophical work appears in academic journals. The largest philosophers in history - Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Augustine, Descartes, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche - have become canonical as any writers. Philosophical letters extends from the humanistic prose to formal logic that has become extremely technical to a degree similar to mathematics.


5.5. Prose. History. (История)

A significant portion of historical writing ranks as literature particularly the genre known as creative nonfiction, as well as Internet journalism, such as literary journalism. However, these areas have become very large, and often have a primarily utilitarian purpose: to record data or convey immediate information. As a result of writing in these fields often lacks a literary quality, though often in his best moments and quality. Major "literary" historians include Herodotus, Thucydides and Procopius, all considered to be canonical literary figures.


5.6. Prose. The law. (Закон)

The law offers more ambiguity. Some writings of Plato and Aristotle, the law tables of Hammurabi of Babylon or even the early parts of the Bible may be seen as legal literature. Roman civil law, embodied in the corpus Juris Civilis during the reign of Justinian I in Byzantium has a reputation as significant literature. The founding documents of many countries, including constitutions and codes, can be considered literature.


6. Drama. (Драма)

Drama is literature intended for performance. This form is often combined with music and dance, Opera and musical theater. The game is a subset of this form, referring to the written drama of the playwright, which is intended for performance in a theatre, he is mostly dialogue between characters, and usually aims at dramatic or theatrical performance, not for reading. Wardrobe drama, in contrast, refers to a play written for reading, not for performance, therefore, it is assumed that the meaning of such work can be fully realized on the page. Took almost all the drama verse form until comparatively recently.

Greek drama exemplifies the earliest form of drama of which we have extensive knowledge. Tragedy as a dramatic genre, created in performance associated with religious and civic festivals, typically enacting or developing the well-known historical or mythological themes. Tragedies generally presented very serious themes. With the advent of new technologies, scripts written for non-stage media have been added to this form. War of the worlds radio in 1938 saw the advent of literature written for radio, and many works of drama have been adapted for film or television. Conversely, television, film, and radio literature have been adapted to printed or electronic media.


7. Other narrative forms. (Других повествовательных форм)

  • Films, videos and broadcast soap operas have carved a niche, often repeats the functionality of prose.
  • Electronic literature is a literary genre consisting of works that are created in a digital environment.
  • Said graphic novels and comics, the history in combination with sequential artwork, dialogue and text.

8. Literary devices. (Литературные приемы)

Literary reception and literary techniques used by authors to obtain certain effects.

Literary techniques that cover a wide range of approaches to examples of fiction, whether a work is narrated in the first person, or from another perspective whether to use a traditional linear narrative or a nonlinear narrative, a literary genre that was chosen.

Literary devices includes the specific elements in the work that make it effective. Examples: metaphor, comparison, ellipsis, narrative motifs and allegories. Even a simple word play function as a literary device. In the literature of "stream of consciousness" story is a literary device.


9. Legal status. (Правовой статус)

United Kingdom. (Соединенное Королевство)

Literary works are protected by copyright law from unauthorised reproduction since at least 1710. Literary works are defined by copyright law to mean any work other than dramatic or musical work which is written, spoken or sung, and accordingly includes a table or compilation other than a database, computer programme, preparation of design material for a computer program and D a database.

Literary works are not limited to works of literature but include all works expressed in print or writing other than dramatic or musical works.


10. Awards. (Награды)

There are numerous awards, recognition of achievements and contribution to the literature. Given the diversity of the field awards are typically limited in scope usually on: Form, genre, language, nationality, and weekends, for example for aspiring writers and debut novels.

The Nobel prize in literature was one of six Nobel prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded to the author on the basis of their body, not for themselves for a particular work. Other literary prizes for which all nationalities are eligible include: international Neustadt prize for literature, the man International prize Booker prize, Pulitzer prize, Hugo award, first book award guardian award and the Franz Kafka for.

  • Canadian literature Catalan literature Croatian literature Cypriot literature Czech literature Danish literature Dutch literature English literature Estonian
  • Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter. The Republic of India
  • British literature is literature from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands. This article
  • 13th century in poetry, 12th century in literature 14th century in literature list of years in literature 1204 The Imperial Library of Constantinople
  • Japanese literature were heavily influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature often written in Classical Chinese. Indian literature also
  • 15th century in poetry, 14th century in literature 16th century in literature list of years in literature 1403 A guild of stationers is founded
  • German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language. This includes literature written in Germany, Austria, the German parts
  • Philosophy and literature involves the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes the literature of philosophy and the philosophical
  • 14th century in poetry, 13th century in literature 15th century in literature list of years in literature 1323 The name Pleiade is adopted by a

  • Canadian literature has been created in Canadian English, Canadian French, and Canadian Gaelic, and more recently by First Nations and immigrants of other
  • Arabic literature Arabic: الأدب العربي ALA - LC: al - Adab al - Arabī is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language
  • Nepalese literature is the literature of Nepal. This is distinct from Nepali literature which is the literature in only Nepali language Khas kura
  • Philippine literature is literature associated with the Philippines from prehistory, through its colonial legacies, and on to the present. Pre - Hispanic
  • Bengali literature Bengali: ব ল স হ ত য, Bangla Sahityo denotes the body of writings in the Bengali language. The earliest extant work in Bengali literature
  • Yiddish literature encompasses all those belles - lettres written in Yiddish, the language of Ashkenazic Jewry which is related to Middle High German. The
  • to literature Literature prose, written or oral, including fiction and non - fiction, drama, and poetry. See also: outline of poetry. Literature can
  • Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages that is, the
  • Latin American literature consists of the oral and written literature of Latin America in several languages, particularly in Spanish, Portuguese, and the
  • Vietnamese literature Vietnamese: Viet - nam van - hoc or Van hoc Viet Nam is the literature both oral and written, created largely by Vietnamese - speaking
  • Icelandic literature refers to literature written in Iceland or by Icelandic people. It is best known for the sagas written in medieval times, starting
  • Manx literature is literature in the Manx language. The earliest datable text in Manx preserved in 18th century manuscripts a poetic history of the
  • Zealand literature is literature written in or by the people of New Zealand. It may deal with New Zealand themes or places, but some literature written
  • Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its emigres and to Russian - language literature The roots of Russian literature can be traced
  • Serbian literature Serbian: Српска књижевност Srpska knjizevnost refers to literature written in Serbian and or in Serbia and all other lands where
  • Hebrew literature consists of ancient, medieval, and modern writings in the Hebrew language. It is one of the primary forms of Jewish literature though
  • Greek literature dates back from the ancient Greek literature beginning in 800 BC, to the modern Greek literature of today. Ancient Greek literature was
  • This article is focused on English - language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, the Crown
  • Macedonian literature Macedonian: македонска книжевност begins with the Ohrid Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire nowadays North Macedonia
  • American literature is literature written or produced in the United States of America and its preceding colonies for specific discussions of poetry and
  • Taiwanese literature refers to the literature written by Taiwanese in any language ever used in Taiwan, including Japanese, Taiwanese Han Hokkien, Hakka

Encyclopedic dictionary


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At the Emirates Airline Festival of Literature, we bring people of all ages and backgrounds together with authors from across the world to promote education,. How Iowa Flattened Literature The Chronicle of Higher Education. 4 days ago literature definition: 1. written artistic works, especially those with a high and lasting artistic value: 2. all the…. Learn more. Literature Wiktionary. 15 Jun 2010 LITERATURE. Since the time of first European contact, when Texas was a geographic mystery, mission field, and disputed prize, writers have. Literature & Latte. Literature. Welcome to SA! We are glad you are here. If you identify with us and think you may share our problem, we would like to share our solution with you. Engagement in Health Research Literature Explorer PCORI. Download and Order Power Transmission Product Literature Catalogs, Brochures, Service Manuals, Application Profiles, Articles, Innovation Spotlights. Russian Studies in Literature Taylor & Francis Online. Research within librarian selected research topics on Literature from the Questia online library, including full text online books, academic journals, magazines,.

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Literature embodies a vision of life. For those who wish to explore the perennial themes of human experience, the study of literature is an essential part of an. Defining Literature Introduction to Literature Lumen Learning. The Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Literature, available via subscription and perpetual access, features full text articles, including Asian American Detective. Literature Erico. The following is a list of the current ACA literature available on the Web. Look for new pieces to be added in time. We have free tri folds in english and translated.

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Undergraduate Studies in Literature. English Course Listings. Human beings live in language. Many religious traditions and quite a few modern archaeologists. American literature. NEA Literature Fellowships represent the National Endowment for the Arts most direct investment in American creativity. The goal of the fellowships program is. Overeaters Anonymous, Inc. Literature definition is writings in prose or verse especially writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal. Literature Catalogs Brochures Service Manuals Altra Industrial. Literature Section. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue 14N 407. Cambridge, MA 02139 tel: 617 253 3581 fax: 617 253 6105. LITERATURE The Handbook of Texas Online Texas State. A version of this paper was first shared at the 2019 Association for the Study of Literature and Environment Conference on the. Literary Arts NEA. Easily find NIBCO price lists, product catalogs and more. You can download product literature to your computer or order copies through a shopping cart and.

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10 Oct 2019 For more than a century, the Nobel Prize in Literature has often been a polarizing spectacle, with critics denouncing the winners as too obscure,. Literature Ancient History Encyclopedia. Letters About Literature satisfies the Tennessee English Language Arts Curriculum and Common Core Standards. If youd like more information on ways you. Studies in 20th & 21st Century Literature Kansas State University. Literature & History is a biannual international refereed journal concerned to investigate the relations between writing, history and ideology. Published. Literature BJU Press. In our Literature and Fiction category you will find classic novels, timeless love stories, literary history and criticism, essays and short stories, mysteries, poetry,. Literature NA.org. Results 1 25 of 860 Search 860 English and Literature faculty positions at colleges and universities on Higoogle - wiki.info. Updated daily. Free to job seekers. Oral literature. 10 Feb 2014 Did the CIA fund creative writing in America? The idea seems like the invention of a creative writer. Yet once upon a time 1967, to be exact,.


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Live a literary inspired life. What is Literature for? YouTube. Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to be an art form or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Literature Reddit. 13 May 2019 In a world that is hardening, literature can offer an indestructible place of refuge writes Arundhati Roy, author of The God of Small Things.

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The Poetics of the Psyche: Adam Phillips on Why Psychoanalysis Is Like Literature and How Art Soothes the Soul. Everybody is dealing with how much of their. History of literature. 12 Aug 2019 Literature is a term used to describe written and sometimes spoken material. Derived from the Latin word literature meaning writing formed with letters, literature most commonly refers to works of the creative imagination, including poetry, drama, fiction, nonfiction, and in some instances, journalism, and song. Literature Palgrave Macmillan. Experience Europe through a literary lens and discover the importance of place in literature by visiting the venues and hideouts of Nordic contemporary writers.

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Montgomery County Community Colleges Art & Literature Magazine. 1 Sep 2019 About the Journal. American Literature has been regarded since its inception as the preeminent periodical in its field. Each issue contains. Literary magazines uk. The Bordeaux Based Magazine that Celebrates Diversity in Literature. The latest Tweets from American Literature Journal @amlitjournal Were thrilled to announce the publication of The Plantation, the Postplantation, and the. Best literary magazines. Agora: The Arts and Literature Magazine of NYU School of Medicine. Christianity & Literature is a peer reviewed scholarly journal. Published quarterly in March, June, September, and December, each issue contains articles, book. Online literary magazines. Apt – a literary magazine. Poetry, short stories, personal essays, and art work by current students are eligible for submission in our student run literary arts magazine.

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Literature Cambridge Core. Booksellers, readers, and authors cant be wrong these are some of the most beloved books in literary fiction. Literature book definition. List of books and articles about Symbolism in Literature Online. About this book. This is an important study of the publishing of contemporary writing in Britain. It analyzes the changing social, economic and cultural.

Novel definition and examples.

Examining the 9 11 Novel and Post 9 11 Literature. How William Styron Kept Me Alive. Darkness Visible was the only book I took into the mental hospital, and it was the book that brought me out. May 14 Greg. Famous novels. What is the difference between literature and novel? Quora. Novel. Definition: You know the big fat things with all those pages that your English teachers keep assigning to you year after year? Yeah, those are novels. Novels for students. Seeking the Essence of the Novel A Short History of Meiji Literature. 11 Sep 2016 Fiction is one of humanitys best ways to collectively process and remember Here are just a few of the best 9 11 novels and post 9 11 literature.

Novella vs novel.

Novella – John Pistelli. The Miami Book Fair, the nations finest and largest literary gathering, has partnered The prize will be awarded for a novella, written by an author who has not. Novella length. The Italian Novella Medieval Studies Oxford Bibliographies. 27 Jun 2017 While literature should in general stand on its own, and this novella certainly does, the additional context provides a perspective that would. Novella examples. The Ultimate List of FREE Writing Contests in 2019 Jerry Jenkins. 24 Apr 2012 This is the domain of the novella, an unfairly neglected literary art form thats been practiced for centuries by celebrated writers from Charles.

History of literature pdf.

How To Teach High School History with Literature Easily. What is the literary marketplace, and what is the relationship between today the fields of book history, the sociology of literature, and literary studies itself. What is literature pdf. The Worst And Most Important Smuggling Job in the History of. Brief is impossible so here is a not so brief history of English literature. Periods of British Literature The Old English Period.

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Trek newspaper Densho Encyclopedia. 28 Dec 2018 The Israel Prize laureate, the author of A Tale of Love and Darkness, promoted peace with the Palestinians and was one of the countrys most. Electric literature. The Literature and Magazine Newspaper Editors Rant Zukiswa. The appearance and function of poems in daily newspapers changed over the of American literature or studies of poetry, newspaper poems emerge here as a. Literature news 2019. The Anglo African Newspaper African American Studies Oxford. Welcome to AP Literature and Composition. Through the study of literature, students will carefully read and critically analyze fiction, drama, and poetry to.

Types of literary criticism pdf.

Literary Criticism English and American Literature Research. Beyond treating different theories of emotion, an account of literary affect needs to consider the various possible locations of emotion in literature. These begin. Literary criticism examples. Literary criticism pedia. An original, provocative and thoughtful series of readings of New Testament and extra biblical texts. Making forays into literary criticism, philosophy and theology. Literary criticism theories. Sandra Percy, Literature, Literary Theory and Literary Criticism A. 24 Oct 2019 Literary criticism analyzes, interprets, or evaluates a work of literature. Criticism asks what literature is, what it does, and what it is worth.

Evaluate the significance of landscape in australian literature.

Australian Classic Jane Gleeson White. 26 Feb 2016 Consequently, in the Australian literature of the colonial period, Australian wild nature was constructed as the other of human civilization. Australian literature poems. Childrens literature. 27 Mar 2018 Goroke, Victoria, a former stagecoach stop in southeastern Australia, pop. 200, is not the sort of place you would expect to host a daylong. Facts about australian literature. Australian Literature from 1940 to 1970 google - wiki.info. 14 Nov 2016 Even Patrick White, the most revered figure in modern Australian literature and the first and only Australian winner of the Nobel Prize, is largely.

Modern gothic novels.

A Gothic Literature Primer: Suggested Reading LitReactor. Dec 23, 2013 Gothic fiction began in the United Kingdom with The Castle of Otranto The term gothic came to be applied to the literary genre precisely. Famous gothic novels. Gothic Novels Characteristics & Examples Video with Lesson. Cambridge Core American Studies The Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction edited 8 The Victorian Gothic in English novels and stories, 1830 1880. History of gothic literature. Gothic Literature A Definition and List of Gothic Fiction Elements. Oct 18, 2018 In the centuries since, gothic fiction has not only flourished, but also branched off into many popular subgenres. Early novels in the gothic horror. 10 elements of gothic literature. Gothic fiction wand. The acclaimed novelist Sarah Perry chooses five books that exemplify the Gothic tradition, and explains how these novels have inspired her own writing.

Creative nonfiction ideas.

Bending Genre: Essays on Creative Nonfiction Margot Singer. Sometimes called literary journalism or the literature of fact, creative nonfiction merges the boundaries between literary art fiction, poetry and research. Creative fiction writing. Creative Nonfiction Creative Writing Research Guides at Madison. 25 May 2019 Creative nonfiction combines techniques of fiction and nonfiction and literary director of Pasadena LitFest and teaches fiction writing at the. Creative nonfiction articles. Creative Writing Minor Spelman College. Literary House Series: Creative Nonfiction Writer Kathryn Nuernberger, 2020.

Books about sweden history.

Swedish literature LC Linked Data Service: Authorities and. The Society of Swedish Literature in Finland SLS was founded in 1885, with one of its central missions being to collect evidence of Swedish speaking culture. Finnish literature. Swedish literature KWBU. Although there are a bounty of well drawn mysteries and thrillers in this vein, Swedish literature encompasses all genres. The books below, all written by. New swedish books. Modern Swedish Book Business, 1800–2000 Literature Oxford. Swedish Literature Exchange. 1.3K likes. Swedish Literature Exchange is a collective name for the Swedish Arts Councils work with international.

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Japanese literature Facts for Kids Kiddle encyclopedia. Graduate courses in Japanese literature at DEALL offer a variety of study options, in both English translation and original Japanese texts, across the span of this. Japanese literature in the philippines. Japanese literature Oxford Reference. 19 Jun 2019 The overwhelming popularity of Murakami Harukis novels in translation has transformed the image of Japanese literature around the world.


Modern And Contemporary Swiss Poetry Swiss Literature Target. Books shelved as swiss literature Im Not Stiller by Max Frisch, Homo Faber by Max Frisch, The Pledge by Friedrich Durrenmatt, Heidi by Johanna Spyri, a. Swiss author bestseller. 5 Swiss Childrens Books Swiss Family Travel. 5 Mar 2016 Yet for a long time, the Swiss SF has engaged in speculative fiction game. The undisputed giants of 20th century Swiss literature are Max. Romansh literature. The Swiss Riveter: A Listing of Translated Swiss Literature since. 7 Mar 2017 to be avoided not to trigger Swiss income taxes, withholding tax or stamp. This is, also according to Swiss literature, the reason why the. Swiss novelists. Typically Swiss Review of La Cordee, Les Hauderes, Switzerland. The award ceremony, the people involved with German literature, the panels, etc. In his new collection Were Flying, Swiss author Peter Stamm weaves.

German literature 1945.

Introduction German Literature Resources Research Guides at. In many ways, Goethe was an exceptional writer: He lived through and defined 3 literary periods Sturm und Drang, German Classicism and early Romanticism. German literature in austria. Some descriptions of schizophrenia like illness in the German. Search Funded PhD Projects, Programs & Scholarships in PhD german literature. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and.

Franz kafka.

Czech Literature TV Tropes. Books shelved as czech literature The Unbearable Lightness of Being by Milan Kundera, The Trial by Franz Kafka, Closely Watched Trains by Bohumil Hrabal. Czech republic. Czech Literature Product Tags Dalkey Archive Press. Novak, A. Publisher: Michigan Slavic Publications. Year of Publication: 1986. Location: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. of Pages: 381. Price: n8.00. Novel czech authors. Newspapers & Popular Literature Resources for the Study of the. The free The Golden Age Czech at the Year of such circumstances needs several to product, but the available feb belongs same. 25 family of the Duden. Milan kundera. An exciting time for Czech literature literalab. The course offers a survey of modern Czech literature in all its genres i.e. poetry, and Czech literature in particular of the last approximately 180 years e.g.

General features of modernist literature.

Literary Modernism Series The University of Texas Press. In anglophone literature, modernism more nearly describes an era than a unitary movement. But what connects the modernist writers aside from a rich web of. Impact of modernism in literature. Modernism and the Ordinary – Liesl Olson. 10 May 2017 This is a remarkable achievement, and the book represents a significant addition to the existing literature on British and Irish literary modernism. Modernism in american literature. Literary Modernism and the Cinema Department of English. 20 Sep 2012 Irish modernism is an emerging field in literary studies. effort to suggest the historical causes that precipitated the rise of modernist literature. Modernism in literature pdf. Literary Modernism and the Transformation of the Work. American Literature 74.2 2002 418 419. The Eyes Mind: Literary Modernism and Visual Culture. By Karen Jacobs. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press. 2001. viii.

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