Meteors or "shooting stars" is the visible light band and a heated glowing object falling through the Earths atmosphere. A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from such a body that survives its passage through the Earths atmosphere and falls on the surface of the Earth. A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body travelling through outer space. Meteor may also refer to:
Asteroids are minor planets, especially the inner part of the Solar system. Larger asteroids are also called planetoids. These terms have historically been applied to any astronomical object orbiting the Sun that is not recognized as a disk in a telescope and not showing signs of an active comet like tail. As minor planets in the outer Solar system was discovered, which was discovered volatile-rich surfaces, similar to the comet, it must be distinguished from objects in the main asteroid belt. In this article the term "asteroid" refers to the minor planets of the inner Solar system, includ ...
Planet an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals. The term planet is ancient, associated with the history of astrology, science, mythology and religion. Five planets in the Solar system visible to the naked eye. These are considered by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of the gods. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. I ...
Comet is a icy small Solar system body that when passing close to the Sun, heats up and begins to release gases, this process is called degassing. This creates a visible atmosphere or coma and sometimes a tail. These phenomena are due to the influence of solar radiation and solar wind acting on the comet nucleus. The spectrum of the nucleus of comet from several hundred meters to tens of kilometers across and are composed of loose collections of ice, dust and small rocky particles. Coma may be up to 15 times the diameter of the Earth, and the tail can stretch to one astronomical unit. If b ...
Astrophotography is photography of celestial objects, celestial events and plots of the night sky. The first photograph of an astronomical object was taken in 1840, but it was not until the late 19th century that advances in technology allowed for detailed stellar photography. In addition to the ability to record the details of extended objects such as the Moon, Sun and planets, astrophotography has the ability to image objects invisible to the human eye such as dim stars, nebulae, and galaxies. This is achieved by long exposures with film and digital cameras can accumulate and sum light p ...
Space is the universe. Using word space than the word Universe means to see the Universe as complex and orderly system, or person, as opposed to chaos. Space, and our understanding of the causes of its existence and significance, studied in cosmology is a very broad discipline, encompassing any scientific, religious or philosophical reflections about the Universe and its nature, or reason for existence. Religious and philosophical approaches can include in their conception of the cosmos of different spiritual entities or other issues, it is considered that exists beyond our physical Universe.
Sex in space is sexual activity in the weightlessness of outer space. This creates difficulties in performing the most sexual thanks to Newtons Third law. By law, if they remain attached, they will oppose each other. Consequently, their actions will not change their speed, if they suffer others, "unbound" object. Some difficulties can arise from contact with other objects. If the spouses have a common velocity relative to other objects can occur a collision. There have been suggestions that the conception and pregnancy in the earths environment can be a challenge. As of 2009, with NASA pla ...
During the 1950s and 1960s the Soviet space program used dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether space was impossible. During this period, the Soviet Union launched missions with passenger slots for at least 57 dogs. The number of dogs in space is smaller as some dogs flew more than once. Most survived, the few that died were lost mostly through technical failures, in accordance with the test parameters. A notable exception is Laika, the first dog in orbit, whose death during the 3 November 1957 Sputnik 2 mission was expected from the beginning.
Natural satellite, or moon, is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits planet or a minor planet. In the Solar system of six satellites of the planets of the system, containing 205 known natural satellites. Four IAU-listed dwarf planets have natural satellites: Pluto, Haumea, Makemake and Eris. As of September 2018, there are 334 other minor planets known to have moons. The system Earth–Moon is unique among planetary systems in that the ratio of the mass of the moon to the mass of the Earth much more than any other natural satellite–planet ratio in the Solar system. In 3 ...
Rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine. Rocket engine exhaust consists entirely of gunpowder in the rocket. Rocket engines work by action and reaction and push rockets forward simply expelling their exhaust in the opposite direction at high speed, and therefore can operate in a vacuum. In fact, rockets operate more efficiently in space than in atmosphere. A multistage rocket capable of achieving escape velocity from Earth and therefore can reach an unlimited maximum height. Compared to airbreathing engines, missiles, light and po ...
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. Type artificial satellite, spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, Earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration and transportation of people and goods. All the spacecraft except for one stage-to-orbit vehicles were unable to get into space on their own and require a booster. On a sub-orbital spaceflight, a spacecraft enters space and then returns to the surface, not having enough energy or speed to make a full circle around the Earths orbit. For orb ...
Space probe is a space robot that does not orbit Earth, but instead, explores further into space. Space probe to reach the moon, travel through interplanetary space, flying, orbit, or land on other planetary bodies, or enter into interstellar space. Space Agency, Soviet Union now Russia and Ukraine, USA, EU, Japan, China, India and Israel jointly launched probes to several planets and satellites of the Solar system, and asteroids and comets. Currently, about 15 missions are in working condition.
In terms of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. These objects are called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as earths Moon. 4 October 1957 the USSR launched the worlds first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 8900 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to estimates by 2018, some 5.000 remain in orbit. Of those, about 1.900 were operational, and the rest have lived their useful life and become space debris. Approximately 63% of the operational satellites in low ...
The space race was a 20th-century competition between two cold war rivals, the Soviet Union and the United States to achieve the first flight. It originates from ballistic missile-based nuclear arms race between the two Nations that occurred after world war II. The technological advantage necessary to achieve milestones in space flight is seen as necessary for national security, and mixed with symbolism and ideology of the time. The space race led to Pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites, unmanned space probes to the moon, Venus, and Mars and manned space flights into orbit an ...
Space flight is ballistic flight into or through outer space. Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft with or without humans on Board. Yuri Gagarin of the USSR was the first human to conduct a space flight. Examples of manned space flight included the US moon landing and space Shuttle program and the Russian program "Soyuz", as well as the current international space station. Examples of unmanned spaceflight include space probes that leave Earth orbit and satellites in Earth orbit such as communications satellites. They work either under the telerobotic control or are fully Autonomous. Space ...
Space-theory and practice of travelling beyond the Earths atmosphere. The term Astronautics was originally astronautique of France was invented in the 1920-ies J. A. roney, President of the Goncourt Academy, by analogy with Aeronautics. Because there is a degree of overlap between the two fields, the term aerospace is often used to describe both. In 1930, Robert Esnault-Pelterie published the first book in a new field of research. The term Astronautics was originally cosmonautique in France was introduced in the 1930-ies of Ary Sternfeld with his book initiation La Cosmonautique introducti ...
★ Outer space
Outer space, or simply space, is the space that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies. Outer space is not completely empty is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust and cosmic rays. In the basic temperature of outer space, as set by the background radiation from the Big Bang, is 2.7 Kelvin. Plasma between the galaxies account for almost half of the baryonic matter in the universe, its density is slightly less than one hydrogen atom per cubic meter and a temperature of millions of degrees Kelvin. Local concentrations have condensed into stars and galaxies. Studies show that 90% of the mass in most galaxies in an unknown form, called dark matter, which interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces. Observations show that most of the mass-energy in the observable Universe is dark energy, the energy vacuum that is poorly understood. Intergalactic space takes up most of the volume of the Universe, but even galaxies and star systems consist almost entirely of empty space.
Outer space does not begin at a certain height above the Earths surface. However, the line of the Pocket, the height of 100 km 62 miles above sea level, is conventionally used as the start of outer space in space treaties and for aerospace accounting records. In the framework of international space law was established by the outer space Treaty, which entered into force on 10 October 1967. This Treaty precludes any claims of national sovereignty and permits all States to freely explore outer space. Despite the drafting of UN resolutions for the peaceful uses of outer space, anti-satellite weapons have been tested in earth orbit.
Humans began the physical exploration of outer space in the 20th century with the advent of high altitude balloon flights. This was followed by manned rocket flights and, later, manned earth orbit, first achieved by Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union in 1961. Due to the high cost of access to space, manned spaceflight has been limited to low earth orbit and the moon. On the other hand, unmanned spacecraft have reached all the known planets in the Solar system.
Outer space represents a challenging environment for human exploration, because of the danger of vacuum and radiation. Microgravity also has a negative effect on human physiology that causes muscle atrophy and loss of bone mass. In addition to these health and environmental issues, the economic costs of bringing the facilities, including humans, into space is very high.
1. Opening. (Открытие)
In 350 BC, Greek philosopher Aristotle suggested that nature abhors a vacuum a principle that became known as the horror vacui. This concept is built on a 5th century BC ontological argument by the Greek philosopher Parmenides who denied the possible existence of a void in space. Based on this idea that a vacuum could not exist, in the West it was widespread for many centuries that space could not be empty. At the end of the 17th century French philosopher Rene Descartes argued that all space must be filled in.
In Ancient China, the 2nd century astronomer Zhang Heng became convinced that space must be infinite extending well beyond the mechanism that supported the Sun and the stars. The surviving books from the school the Xuan Ye said that the heavens were boundless, "empty and devoid of substance." In addition, "the Sun, the Moon, and the stars float in the empty space moving or standing still".
Italian scientist Galileo Galilei knew that air has mass and so was subject to gravity. In 1640 he demonstrated that the established force resisted the formation of a vacuum. However, he will remain for his pupil Evangelista Torricelli to create an apparatus which will produce a partial vacuum in 1643. This experiment resulted in the first mercury barometer and created a scientific sensation in Europe. French mathematician Blaise Pascal reasoned that if the mercury was air, the column should be short at altitudes where the air pressure below. In 1648, his brother-in-law, Florin Perier, repeated the experiment on the mountain Puy de dôme in Central France and found that the column was shorter by three inches. This decrease in pressure testified was carrying half a balloon at the mountain and watching it gradually to expand, then contract for the descent.
In 1650, German scientist Otto von Guericke constructed the first vacuum pump: a device that would further refute the principle of horror vacui. He correctly noted that the Earths atmosphere surrounds the planet like a shell, with the density gradually decreases with altitude. He came to the conclusion that there must be a vacuum between the Earth and the Moon.
In the 15th century, German theologian Nicholas Cusanus speculated that the universe lacked a center and a circumference. He believed that the universe, although not infinite, cannot be held as the end it lacked any bounds within which it can be contained. These ideas led to speculations as to the infinite dimension of space by the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno in the 16th century. He handed copernicuss heliocentric cosmology to the concept of an infinite Universe filled with a substance he called aether which did not survive the movement of celestial bodies. the English philosopher William Gilbert came to the same conclusion, arguing that the stars are visible to us only because they are surrounded by a thin aether or a void. This concept of aether originated with ancient Greek philosophers, including Aristotle, who conceived it as a means by which the heavenly bodies move.
The concept of a Universe filled with a luminiferous ether has retained support among some scientists until the early 20th century. This form of aether was viewed as the medium through which light could propagate. In 1887 the Michelson–Morley experiment tried to detect the Earths motion through this medium by looking for changes in the speed of light depending on the direction of motion of the planets. However, a null result indicates that something is wrong with the concept. The idea of a luminiferous ether, was then abandoned. He was replaced by albert Einsteins theory of special relativity, which says that the speed of light in vacuum is constant, regardless of observers motion or frame of reference.
The first professional astronomer to support the concept of an infinite Universe was the Englishman Thomas Diggs in 1576. But the scale of the Universe remained unknown until the first successful measurement of the distance to the nearest star in 1838 by German astronomer Friedrich Bessel. He showed that the star 61 Cygnus has a parallax of just 0.31 second of arc. seconds compared with the modern value of 0.287". This corresponds to a distance of over 10 light years. In 1917, Heber Curtis pointed out that the new in the nebula, on average, 10 magnitudes fainter than the galactic new, suggesting that the first 100 times farther. The distance to the Andromeda galaxy was determined in 1923 by American astronomer Edwin Hubble by measuring the brightness of Cepheid variables in that galaxy, a new method was opened by Henrietta Leavitt. This established that the Andromeda galaxy, and therefore, all galaxies lying far beyond the milky Way.
The modern concept of outer space is based on the "Big Bang" cosmology, first proposed in 1931 by the project of Belgian physicist Georges Lemaitre. This theory States that the universe originated from a very dense form that has since undergone continuous expansion.
The earliest known estimate of the temperature of outer space with the help of a Swiss physicist Charles E. Guillaume In 1896. Using the estimated radiation of the background stars he concluded that space must be heated to a temperature of 5-6 K. the English physicist Arthur Eddington made a similar calculation to obtain the temperature of 3.18 K in 1926. The German physicist Erich Regener used the total measured energy of cosmic rays to estimate an intergalactic temperature of 2.8 in 1933. American physicists Ralph Alfer and Robert Herman predicted a 5 K for the temperature of the space in 1948, on the basis of the gradual reduction of the background energy after then-new the Big Bang theory. Modern measurements of cosmic microwave background radiation is about 2.7 K.
The term outer space was used in 1842 by the English poet Lady Emmeline Stuart-Wortley in her poem "girl from Moscow". The expression outer space was used as an astronomical term by Alexander von Humboldt in 1845. It was later popularized in the writings of Hg wells in 1901. Short term space older, first used to denote the region outside the Earths sky in John Miltons Paradise Lost in 1667.
2. The formation and state. (Образование и государство)
According to the theory of the Big Bang, the very early universe was extremely hot and dense state about 13.8 billion years ago, which rapidly expanded. Around 380.000 years later the universe had cooled sufficiently to allow protons and electrons to combine and form hydrogen - the so-called recombination epoch. When this happened matter and energy became disconnected, allowing photons to travel freely through the ever-expanding space. The question that remained following the initial expansion, has undergone gravitational collapse to create stars galaxies and other astronomical objects leaving behind a deep vacuum that forms what is now called outer space. As light has a finite velocity, this theory also constrains the size of the directly observable Universe. This leaves open the question of whether the universe is finite or infinite.
Today, the shape of the Universe was determined from measurements of the cosmic microwave background using satellites like the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe. These observations indicate that the spatial geometry of the Universe is "flat", this means that photons with parallel branches at one point will remain parallel as they travel through space to the limits of the observable Universe, except gravity. In a flat Universe combined with the measured mass density of the Universe and the accelerating expansion of the Universe indicates that space has a nonzero vacuum energy called dark energy.
Estimates the average energy density of the modern Universe is 5.9 protons per cubic meter, including dark energy, dark matter and baryonic matter ordinary matter is composed of atoms. Atoms make up only 4.6% of the total energy density, or the density of one proton in four cubic meters. The density of the Universe, however, is clearly not uniform, it ranges from relatively high density in galaxies-including very high density of structures in galaxies, such as planets, stars and black holes - to conditions in vast voids that have much lower density, at least from the point of view of visible matter. Unlike matter, dark matter, dark energy appears to be concentrated in galaxies: although dark energy may make up the majority of mass-energy in the Universe, dark energys influence is 5 orders of magnitude smaller than the effects of gravity from matter and dark matter in the milky Way.
3. Environment. (Среды)
Outer space is the closest approximation to a perfect vacuum. It is, in fact, theres no friction, allowing stars, planets and moons to move freely along their ideal orbits, after the initial stage of formation. However, even the deep vacuum of intergalactic space is not devoid of matter as it contains a few hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. Compared to them, people breathe the air contains about 10 25 molecules per cubic meter. Low density matter in outer space means that electromagnetic radiation can travel great distances without scattering: mean free path of a photon in intergalactic space is about 10 to 23 km, or 10 billion light years. In spite of this, extinction, which is absorption and scattering of photons with dust and gas, is an important factor in galactic and intergalactic astronomy.
Stars, planets and moons retain their atmospheres due to gravitational attraction. The atmosphere has no clearly defined upper boundary: the density of atmospheric gas gradually decreases with distance from the object until it becomes indistinguishable from outer space. The earths atmospheric pressure drops to about 0.032 PA at 100 kilometres 62 miles above sea level, compared to 100.000 PA for the International Union of pure and applied chemistry IUPAC definition of standard pressure. Above this altitude, isotropic gas pressure rapidly becomes insignificant compared to the radiation pressure from the Sun and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. The thermosphere in this range has large gradients of pressure, temperature and composition and varies greatly depending on the space weather.
The temperature of the space is measured in units of the kinetic activity of the gas, as on Earth. However, the radiation of outer space has a different temperature than the kinetic temperature of the gas, i.e. the gas and radiation are not in thermodynamic equilibrium. Entire observable universe is filled with photons that were created during the Big Bang, known as cosmic microwave background radiation the cosmic background radiation. It is quite likely that, accordingly, a large number of neutrinos called the cosmic neutrino background. The current blackbody temperature of the CMB is about 3 K -270 °C, -454 °F. In the temperature of the gas in outer space always at least the temperature of the background radiation, but can be much higher. For example, in the solar corona reaches temperatures of over 1.2–2.6 million K.
The magnetic field was discovered around almost every class of celestial objects. Star formation in spiral galaxies can create small generators, creating a turbulent magnetic field of about 5-10 mg. Davis–Greenstein effect causes elongated dust grains to align themselves with the magnetic field of the series that leads to a weak optical polarization. This was used to show ordered magnetic fields exist in several nearby galaxies. Magneto-hydrodynamic processes in the active elliptical galaxies produce their characteristic planes and the lobes of the radio. Nonthermal radio sources was discovered even among the most distant, high-z sources, indicating the presence of magnetic fields.
Outside the protective atmosphere and magnetic field there are few obstacles to the passage through space of energetic subatomic particles known as cosmic rays. These particles have energies in the range from about 10 6 eV to the extreme 10 20 eV ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The peak flux of cosmic rays occurs at energies of about 10 9 eV, about 87% protons, 12% helium nuclei and 1% heavier nuclei. In the high energy range, the electron flux is only about 1% of the protons. Cosmic rays can damage electronic components and pose a threat to the health of space travelers. According to astronauts, like don Pettit, space has a burned / metallic odor, which clings to their suits and equipment, similar to the trail torch welding.
4. Regions. (Регионы)
Space is a partial vacuum: its different regions defined by the various atmospheres and "winds" that dominate within them and extend to the point at which these winds are inferior to those for. Geospace exits the Earths atmosphere to the outer reaches of Earths magnetic field, whereupon it gives way to the solar wind in interplanetary space. Interplanetary space extends to heliopause, whereupon the solar wind gives way to the winds of the interstellar medium. Interstellar space then continues to the edge of the galaxy where it fades into the second intergalactic voids.
4.1. Regions. Geospace. (Геопространство)
Geospace is the region of outer space near Earth, including the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere. Radiation belts van Allen lie within the geospace. The outer boundary of near-earth space is the magnetopause which forms an interface between earths magnetosphere and the solar wind. The inner boundary of the ionosphere. The variable space weather conditions space depends on the behavior of the Sun and solar wind, the geospace is connected with heliophysics - the study of the Sun and its effect on planets of the Solar system.
Day the magnetopause using the solar wind pressure - sunflower distance from the center of the Earth, typically 10 earth radii. On the night side, the solar wind stretches the magnetosphere to form a tail, which sometimes extends to more than 100-200 Earth radii. In about four days each month, the lunar surface is protected from the solar wind, as the Moon passed through its tail.
Geospace is populated by electrically charged particles at very low densities the motions of which are controlled by the Earths magnetic field. These plasmas form a medium from which storm-like disturbances powered by the solar wind can drive electrical currents in the Earths upper atmosphere. Geomagnetic storms can disrupt two areas of the earths space environment, radiation belts and the ionosphere. These storms increase fluxes of energetic electrons that can damage satellite electronics disrupting shortwave radio and GPS location and time. Magnetic storms can also be a hazard to astronauts even in low earth orbit. They also create auroras visible at high latitudes in the oval around the geomagnetic poles.
Although it meets the definition of outer space the atmospheric density within the first few hundred kilometers above the line of Pocket-its still enough to create significant drag on satellites. This region contains material left over from previous manned and unmanned launches that are a potential hazard to spacecraft. Some of these re-enters the garbage periodically, the Earths atmosphere.
4.2. Regions. Cislunar space. (Cislunar пространства)
Earths gravity holds the moon in orbit at an average distance 384.403 km 238.857 Mi. The area outside the earths atmosphere and goes just beyond the moons orbit, including the Lagrangian points is sometimes called a cislunar space.
In a region of space where gravity of Earth remains dominant against gravitational perturbations from the Sun is called the hill sphere. This also applies to translunar space approximately 1% of the average distance from the earth to the Sun, or 1.5 million km 0.93 million Mi.
Deep space has a different definition of where it starts. It was established by the government of the United States of America and the other in any region outside of cislunar space. The international telecommunication Union is responsible for telecommunications, including satellites defines the beginning of deep space is about 5 times that distance is 2 × 10 6 km.
4.3. Regions. Interplanetary space. (Межпланетное пространство)
Interplanetary space is defined by the solar wind, a continuous stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun that creates a very tenuous atmosphere, the heliosphere, billions of kilometers in space. This wind has a particle density of 5-10 protons / cm3 and is moving at a speed of 350-400 km / s 780.000–890.000 km / h. Interplanetary space extends to the heliopause where the influence of the galactic environment starts to dominate over the magnetic field and particle flux from the Sun. Distance and strength of the heliopause varies depending on the activity level of the solar wind. The heliopause, in turn, deflects in the direction of low-energy galactic cosmic rays, this modulation effect of the peak during solar maximum.
The volume of interplanetary space is a nearly total vacuum, with the Average length of free path of about one astronomical unit at the orbital distance of the Earth. However, this space is not completely empty and little filled with cosmic rays which include ionized atomic nuclei and various subatomic particles. There is also gas plasma and dust small meteors and several dozen types of organic molecules discovered to date by microwave spectroscopy. The cloud of interplanetary dust is visible at night as a faint band called the zodiacal light.
Interplanetary space contains the magnetic field generated by the sun. There are also magnetospheres generated by planets such as Jupiter, Saturn, mercury and the Earth that have a magnetic field. These are formed under the influence of the solar wind in approximation of a teardrop shape, with a long tail extends behind the planet. These magnetic fields can absorb particles from the solar wind and other sources creating belts of charged particles, such as radiation belts van Allen. Planets without magnetic fields, such as Mars, their atmospheres gradually eroded by the solar wind.
4.4. Regions. Interstellar space. (Межзвездное пространство)
Interstellar space is the physical space within a galaxy may not effect each star on the covers of the plasma. The contents of interstellar space are called the interstellar medium. About 70% of the mass of the interstellar medium consists of lone hydrogen atoms, the remainder consists of helium atoms. It is enriched with trace quantities of heavy atoms formed through stellar nucleosynthesis. These atoms are ejected into the interstellar medium due to stellar winds or when evolved stars begin to shed their outer shell, for example during the formation of planetary nebulae. The catastrophic explosion of a supernova produces an expanding shock wave consisting of ejected materials, which will further enrich the environment. The density of matter in the interstellar medium can vary considerably: an average of about 10 6 particles / M 3, but the cold molecular clouds can hold 10 8 -10 12 M 3.
A number of molecules exist in interstellar space as can tiny, 0.1 µm dust particles. The number of molecules discovered through radio astronomy is constantly growing at a rate of about four new species per year. Large areas of high density of matter known as molecular clouds allow chemical reactions occur, including the formation of an organic polyatomic species. Much of this chemistry is determined by the collisions. Energetic cosmic rays penetrate the cold, dense clouds and ionization of hydrogen and helium, as a result, for example, in the trihydrogen cation. Then the ionized helium atom can be split relatively abundant carbon monoxide to produce ionized carbon, which in turn, can lead to organic chemical reactions.
The local interstellar medium is a region of space within 100 PC of parsecs from the Sun, which is of interest both for its proximity and its interaction with the Solar system. This volume nearly coincides with a region of space known as the Local bubble which is characterized by the absence of dense, cold clouds. It forms a cavity in the sleeve of Orion, milky Way galaxy with dense molecular clouds along the border, for example, in the constellations of Ophiuchus and Taurus. The actual distance to the boundary of this cavity varies from 60 to 250 PC, and more. This volume contains about 10 4 -10 5 stars and the local interstellar gas counterbalances astrospheres that surround these stars, with the volume of each sphere is different depending on the density of the interstellar medium. The local bubble contains dozens of warm interstellar clouds with temperatures up to 7000 K and a radius of 0.5–5 PC.
When stars are moving at sufficiently high peculiar velocities, their astrospheres can generate bow shocks as they collide with the interstellar medium. For decades it was believed that the Suns bow shock. In 2012, data Explorer the interstellar boundary Capricorn and NASAs probes Voyager showed that the Suns bow shock does not exist. Instead, these authors argue that a subsonic bow wave defines the transition from the flow of the solar wind with the interstellar medium. The bow shock is the third boundary of an astrosphere after the termination shock and astropause called the heliopause of the Solar system.
4.5. Regions. Intergalactic space. (Межгалактическое пространство)
Intergalactic space is the physical space between galaxies. Study the large-scale distribution of galaxies show that the universe has a foamy structure, groups and clusters of galaxies lying along the filament, which occupy about one tenth of the whole space. Other forms of huge voids, which are mostly empty of galaxies. Typically, the void covers a distance of 10-40 h-1 MPC, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km s-1 MPC -1.
Surrounding and stretching between galaxies there is a rarefied plasma that is organized in a galactic filamentary structure. This material is called the intergalactic medium IgM class. The density of the IgM is 5-200 times the average density of the Universe. It consists mostly of ionized hydrogen, i.e. a plasma consisting of equal numbers of electrons and protons. As the gas falls into the intergalactic medium from the voids, it heats up to a temperature of 10 5 K to 10 7 K, which is sufficiently high so that collisions between atoms have enough energy to force the electrons to escape from the hydrogen nuclei, so the IgM is ionized. At these temperatures, it is called warm–hot intergalactic medium whim. Although the plasma is very hot by earthly standards, 10 5 K is often referred to as "warm" in astrophysics. Computer simulations and observations show that up to half of the atomic matter in the Universe might exist in this warm, rarefied state. When gas falls from the filamentary structures of the whim into the galaxy clusters at the intersections of the cosmic filaments it can heat up even more reaching temperatures of 108 K and above in the so-called intracluster medium ICM.
5. The Earths Orbit. (Орбита Земли)
The spacecraft goes into orbit, when its centripetal acceleration of gravity is less than or equal to centrifugal acceleration due to the horizontal component of its velocity. In low earth orbit, this speed is about 7.800 m / s 28.100 km / h, mph 17.400, by contrast, the fastest manned airplane speed ever achieved excluding speeds achieved by the descent of the ship from orbit was 2.200 m / s 7.900 km / h, 4.900 miles in 1967 on the American X-15.
To achieve orbit, a spacecraft must travel faster than a sub-orbital spaceflight. The energy required to achieve orbital velocity of the Earth at an altitude of 600 km 370 Mi is around 36 MJ / kg, which is six times the energy needed merely to climb to the appropriate height. Spacecraft with a perigee below about 2.000 km 1.200 Mi are subject to drag from the Earths atmosphere, which reduces the orbital height. The speed of decay depends on the cross section of the satellite area and weight, as well as differences in air density in the upper atmosphere. Below about 300 km 190 Mi, the decay is accelerated with lives measured in days. When the satellite descends to 180 km 110 miles, it only has a few hours before it evaporates into the atmosphere. The escape velocity required to pull free from the Earths gravitational field in General and move into interplanetary space is about 11.200 m / s 40.300 km / h, 25.100 miles per hour.
6. Border. (Границы)
There is no clear boundary between Earths atmosphere and space, and the density of the atmosphere gradually decreases with increasing height. There are several standard boundary designations, namely:
- United States designates people who travel at a height of 50 km to 80 km as astronauts.
- In Aeronautique International Federation has established a line of Pocket at an altitude of 100 km 62 miles as a working definition for the boundary between Aeronautics and Astronautics. This is used because at an altitude of about 100 km 62 Mi, as Theodore von Pocket calculated, the car would have to move faster than orbital velocity to gain sufficient aerodynamic lift from the atmosphere to support itself.
- NASAs the space Shuttle used 400.000 feet 76 mi, 122 km and return to its height is called a recording interface, which roughly marks the boundary where atmospheric drag becomes noticeable, thus beginning the transition from steering with thrusters to maneuvering with aerodynamic control surfaces.
In 2009 scientists reported detailed measurements with a Supra-thermal ion imager an instrument which measures the direction and speed of ions, which allowed them to set boundaries, 118 km 73 miles above the earth. The boundary represents the intermediate stage a gradual transition over tens of kilometers from the relatively weak winds in the Earths atmosphere to the more violent flows of charged particles in space, which can exceed a speed of 268 m / s to 600 miles per hour.
7. Legal status. (Правовой статус)
The outer space Treaty is the Foundation of international space law. It covers the legal use of outer space by nation States and includes in its definition of outer space the moon and other celestial bodies. The Treaty States that outer space is open for all States to explore and is not subject to the approval of the national sovereignty. It also prohibits the deployment of nuclear weapons in outer space. The Treaty was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1963 and signed in 1967 in the Soviet Union, the United States of America and the United Kingdom. From 2017, the 105 States parties that have ratified or acceded to the Treaty. An additional 25 States that signed the Treaty do not ratify it.
Since 1958, the Space was the subject of several resolutions of the United Nations. 50 of them were on international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space and preventing an arms race in space. Four additional treaties in the field of space law is already harmonized and prepared by the UN Committee on the peaceful uses of outer space. Still, there is still no legal ban on the deployment of conventional weapons in space and anti-satellite weapons have been successfully tested USA, USSR, China, in 2019, India the moon of 1979, the Treaty turned the jurisdiction of all heavenly bodies, including the orbits around such bodies of the international community. However, this Treaty has not been ratified by any nation that currently practices manned spaceflight.
In 1976, eight Equatorial States met in bogotá, Colombia. With their "Declaration of the first meeting of Equatorial countries", or the "Declaration of Bogota", they argued that the control segment geosynchronous orbit for each country. These claims are not internationally recognized.
8. The study and practical application. (Исследование и практическое применение)
For most of human history, space was explored by observation from the Ground - first with the naked eye, and then with a telescope. Before the advent of reliable rocket technology the closest that humans had come to reaching outer space by means of balloons. In 1935, the U.S. Explorer II manned balloon flight had reached the height of 22 km 14 mi. This was greatly exceeded in 1942 when the third launch of the German rocket a-4 climbed to an altitude of about 80 km, 50 miles. In 1957, the unmanned satellite Sputnik-1 was launched by a Russian R-7 rocket, achieving earth orbit at a height of 215-939 kilometers 134-583 Mi. This was followed by the first manned flight into space in 1961 when Yuri Gagarin was sent into orbit on Vostok 1. The first people to escape low earth orbit were Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and William Anders in 1968 on Board the U.S. Apollo 8, which achieved lunar orbit and reached a maximum distance 377.349 km 234.474 miles from Earth.
The first spacecraft to reach escape velocity was the Soviet Luna 1, which flew to the moon in 1959. In 1961, Venera 1 became the first planetary probe. This allowed to identify the presence of solar wind and made its first flight on Venus, though contact was lost before reaching Venus. The first successful planetary mission was to fly by Venus 1962 Mariner-2. The first flyby of Mars by Mariner 4 in 1964. Since that time, unmanned spacecraft have successfully examined each of the solar systems, planets and their moons and many minor planets and comets. They remain one of the main tools for the exploration of outer space and to Earth observation. In August 2012, "Voyager 1" became the first manmade object to leave the Solar system and enter interstellar space.
The absence of air makes outer space a perfect place for astronomy at all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is evidenced by the spectacular pictures sent from Mars to the Hubble telescope, allowing light from more than 13 billion years ago - almost to the moment of the Big Bang - must be observed. However, not every location in space is ideal for a telescope. Interplanetary zodiacal dust emits a diffuse infrared radiation that can mask a weak radiation sources such as exoplanets. Moving an infrared telescope through the dust increases its effectiveness. In addition, a site like the Daedalus crater on the far side of the moon can protect the telescope from radio frequency interference that hampers ground-based observations.
Unmanned spacecraft in Earth orbit are important technologies of modern civilization. They allow direct monitoring of weather conditions relay long range communications, like television, provide a precise navigation and allow remote sensing of the Earth. The last role performs a wide range of purposes including tracking soil moisture for agriculture prediction of water outflow from seasonal snow cover, the identification of diseases of plants and trees, as well as observation of military activities.
Deep vacuum of space could make it an attractive environment for certain industrial processes, such as those that require ultra-clean surfaces. However, as mining asteroids, space manufacturing requires a significant investment with little prospect of immediate return. An important factor in the total score of the high cost of placing mass into orbit of the Earth: 8.000–25.000 $per kg of inflation-adjusted dollars, according to the 2006. The proposed concept for solving this problem include narechenie spacelaunch, the exchange of momentum tethers and space elevators.
Interstellar travel for humans-the crew remains only a theoretical possibility. Distances to the nearest stars will require new technological developments and the ability to securely save the carriages for the journey, which lasted several decades. For example, the study project Daedalus, who proposed spacecraft, working on the synthesis of deuterium and 3 he need 36 years to reach neighboring system alpha Centauri. Other proposed interstellar propulsion include light sails, ramjet engines, and the Beam thrust. More advanced engine systems can use antimatter as fuel, potentially reaching supersonic speed.
9. The impact on biology and human bodies. (Влияние на биологию и человеческими телами)
Despite the harsh conditions, life forms that can withstand extreme space conditions for extended periods of time. Species of lichen carried on the BIOPAN facility of ESA survivors after exposure for ten days in 2007. Plant seeds From Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum germinated after exposure to space for 1.5 years. The strain Bacillus subtilis has survived 559 days when exposed to low earth orbit or a simulated Martian environment. The lithopanspermia hypothesis suggests that rocks ejected into outer space from life-harboring planets may successfully transport life forms to another land. The assumption is that such a scenario occurred early in the history of the Solar system, with potentially microorganism-diamond-bearing rocks being exchanged between Venus, Earth and Mars.
Even at relatively low altitudes in the Earths atmosphere, in conditions hostile for the human body. The altitude where the atmospheric pressure matches the vapor pressure of water at the temperature of human body is called the Armstrong line, named after American physician Harry G. Armstrong. It is located at an altitude of around 19.14 km 11.89 Mi. On or above the line of Armstrong, fluid in throat and lungs will boil away. More specifically, exposure to bodily fluids such as saliva, tears, and fluids in the lungs will boil away. Consequently, at this altitude, the survival of man requires a suit, or a capsule under pressure.
In space, sudden exposure to unprotected human to very low pressure, for example, during rapid decompression, can cause pulmonary barotrauma - a rupture of the lungs, due to the large pressure difference between the inside and outside of the chest. Even if the airway items is fully open, the flow of air through the windpipe may be too slow to prevent tearing. Rapid decompression can lead to rupture of eardrums and sinuses, bruising and blood seep can occur in soft tissues, and shock can cause an increase in oxygen consumption leading to hypoxia.
Due to the rapid decompression of oxygen dissolved in the blood into the lungs to try to equalize the partial pressure gradient. After venous blood enters the brain, the person loses consciousness after a few seconds and die of hypoxia within minutes. Blood and other body fluids boil when the pressure drops below 6.3 kPa, and this condition is called ebullism. The steam may bloat the body to twice its normal size and slow circulation, but tissues elastic and porous enough to prevent rupture. Ebullism will be inhibited because of the pressure containment of blood vessels, so the blood remains liquid. Swelling and ebullism can be reduced by holding in the suit. The crew altitude protection suit hats, close-fitting elastic garments developed in the 1960s for astronauts, prevents ebullism at pressures from 2 kPa. Additional oxygen is needed, 8 km 5.0 Mi to provide sufficient oxygen for breathing and to prevent water loss, while above 20 km 12 Mi pressure suits are essential to prevent ebullism. Most space suits use around 30-39 kPa of pure oxygen, about the same as on the Earths surface. This pressure is high enough to prevent ebullism, but evaporation of nitrogen dissolved in blood could still cause decompression sickness and gas embolisms if not managed.
Humans evolved for life in earth gravity and microgravity has been shown to have a negative impact on human health. Initially, more than 50% of astronauts experience space motion sickness. This can cause nausea and vomiting, dizziness, headaches, lethargy and General malaise. The duration of space sickness varies but it typically lasts for 1-3 days, after which the body adapts to the new environment. Long-term effects of weightlessness results in muscle atrophy and deterioration of the skeleton, or spaceflight osteopenia. These effects can be minimized through exercise regime. Other effects include fluid redistribution, slowing of the cardiovascular system, decreased production of red blood cells, disturb the balance and weakening the immune system. Lesser symptoms include loss of body mass, nasal congestion, sleep disturbance, and puffiness of the face.
Long-term space travel, radiation can represent an acute threat to health. Exposure to high energy ionizing cosmic rays can result in fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and damage to the immune system and changes in white blood cells. Over longer durations, symptoms include an increased risk of cancer plus damage to the eyes, nervous system, lungs and gastrointestinal tract. On a round-trip to Mars for three years, most of the cells in the body of the astronauts will be potentially damaged by high energy nuclei. The energy of these particles is considerably decreased by the shielding provided by the walls of a spacecraft and can be even less on water containers and other barriers. However, the effect of cosmic rays on the screen produces additional radiation that can affect the crew. Further studies are needed to evaluate radiation risk and to determine appropriate responses.
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